deciduous trees

Re-thinking the Patio

I beleive in deigning gardens that are experienced, not just observed.

I believe in designing gardens that are experienced, not just observed.

When we purchased our 1960’s era home in 2009 it had the original concrete aggregate patio outside the back door – right outside. Now that wouldn’t seem to be a problem until I point out that this patio left us pressed up against the house and unable to see any of our 5 acre garden. It felt like a back yard in the worst way – somewhere to hang the washing out perhaps but definitely not where we wanted to sit. It didn’t help that there was a fenced vegetable garden hemming us in on one side either.

BEFORE: realtors photo suggests a large space but that is more about photography tricks than reality

BEFORE: this realtors photo suggests a large space but that is more a result of  staging and photography tricks.  Access to the barn was also blocked by the original veggie garden

Oddly enough there was a small cabin just beyond this patio – again a strange placement but we found ourselves gravitating towards it simply so we could sit on the porch steps. In one of those Oprah-style ‘Aha!” moments we realized that this was where the patio should be. From this vantage point we could see into the garden yet were still only steps away from the back door. It was a destination, not a default.

BEFORE; the cabin had potential; just not there!

BEFORE; the cabin had potential; just not there! Realtor’s photo

Over the next 6 years the cabin got moved, the new vegetable garden constructed and new garden borders established. We even hosted our daughters wedding in the garden – but still the old patio remained, by this point badly broken, a tripping hazard and a source of embarrassment whenever we had guests or clients visit. I had drawn the design but it had never got to the top of the priority or budget list.

The Design

CHAPMAN PATIO 2016

The aim was to put the dining table where the cabin steps had been since that had proven to be the ‘sweet spot‘. We connected it to the new French doors by a wide path created by a series of offset rectangles, keeping a smaller paved area closest to the house for year round grilling. That area is shaded by the house in the peak of summer so has also become a great spot for a small bistro set for those days when we want to be outside but need shade beyond what the umbrella can afford; or want to chat to the chef!

AFTER

AFTER: A multi-zoned patio accessed by a wide path that is truly a destination.

While there are usually just two of us at home we also need to be able to comfortably accommodate larger gatherings. The large semi-circular raised bed has a capped wall at sitting height so even if we run out of chairs there is still seating available.

The dining and fire pit areas are separated by a smaller raised bed that I may re-design seasonally but want to keep the ultimate plant height to less than 3′. This year I have used Phenomenal lavender and purple fountain grass (Pennisetum s. ‘Rubrum’) in the middle and edged it with white and purple alyssum. This combination is deer resistant, fragrant, drought tolerant, moves in the breeze and creates a lovely scrim effect; filtering the view slightly but not blocking it.

Sight lines – or axes are extremely important in design and this was no exception.

Centering the patio on the arbor was a key design decision

Centering the patio on the arbor was a key design decision. The capped wall is at a comfortable sitting height and there is plenty of room to move chairs around. The cabin still forms an important role as a focal point in the border.

Notice how the patio is centered on the arbor. When sitting around the fire pit we feel as though we are truly in the garden and being beckoned into that border; love it. We also have views into the more distant corners of the garden beyond the cabin.

Since we designed a semicircular end to the patio we chose a circular fire pit

Since we designed a semicircular end to the patio we chose a circular fire pit. (The grass is still growing in…….). A darker paver has been used as a border further defining the shape.

We took the vertical arc motif from the arbor and used it in the horizontal plane to create the semicircular fire pit patio. I did some research on patio furniture dimensions to help us size this space correctly.

We were then offered the most incredible gift; the good folks at Berg’s Landscaping said they would build it for us. Together landscape architect John Silvernale and I did some fine-tuning to the design and while I was in England last fall taking care of my Mum they transformed our eyesore into a ‘grown up patio’!! I was even able to show Mum photos that they sent  on my iPad before she passed away and she was as excited as I was to see the magic unfold. I am so grateful that I could share that with her.

Final Details

This view shows the steel wall; still only partially weathered. the feathery foliage in the foreground is Arkansas blue star; the same plant used to fill the large raised bed

This view shows the steel wall; still only partially weathered. The feathery foliage in the foreground is Arkansas blue star; the same plant used to fill the large raised bed. The new French doors and side window allow us to appreciate the garden even from indoors

Earlier this year we added an arced steel wall behind the raised bed to create an ‘infinity edge’. It took some adjusting to get the walls to line up correctly but we are very happy with the result. The steel will rust over a few years; faster if I treat it with acid. I liked the idea of mixing materials in the space.

Planting

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The vegetable garden is only steps away; perfect for gathering berries for desert but also a magnet for hummingbirds

We took the color cues from the main border seen from this area; warm sunset shades offset by blue-green. The two small geometric planting beds between the home and the patio will become a tapestry of colorful textures, framing a container in one bed and a Red Dragon corkscrew hazel in the other. Everything has to be drought tolerant, rabbit resistant and deer resistant although deer rarely come this close to the house so I have risked a few hardy succulents. The rabbits chomped on the delosperma and Ann Folkard hardy geraniums but a spritz with Liquid Fence repellent seems to have helped.

Fall color of Arkansas blue star

Fall color of Arkansas blue star – imagine this framed by the rusted steel wall.

The large semi-circular raised bed is mass planted with Arkansas blue star (Amsonia hubrichtii). This took enormous restraint on my part! The idea is to create a transitional space between the more ornamental plantings closer to the house and the wilder meadow and forest beyond. It will take three years for this perennial to grow in but I know it will be glorious, especially in fall when it turns orange. Imagine the feathery orange foliage, framed by the rusted steel wall…… When I cut it back in winter we will still have an unobstructed view of our clump of river birch so we can enjoy the peeling bark of those trees. For spring interest I will add 200-300 daffodils around the outer edges of the border. I can easily reach in to cut back the foliage as it finishes, the stubs being hidden by the emerging blue star. That’s the plan – we’ll see how the execution goes!

Furniture

We feel so blessed. Mum would have loved everything about this

We feel so blessed. Mum would have loved everything about this. Blue was her favorite color too.

We have had the teak dining furniture for 15 years and it is still going strong. The sectional all weather wicker furniture and propane fire table are new additions. We selected the Sunbrella cushions and accent pillows to work with the color of the flowers, foliage and pots – no beige for me!! Adding a few small accents to the table top helped pull those colors over to the dining area too.

We did consider a pergola type structure for shade but were concerned it would obstruct our view so settled for a cantilever umbrella. This tilts and swings to give us shade for most of the day and unlike conventional in-table umbrellas doesn’t block conversation when closed!

To sum up

We LOVE it all! From the final design, to the size of the spaces, the quality of the materials/workmanship and the colors; it’s like being on vacation in our own garden. We use every space and wherever we sit we have a different view. We are still close to the house yet don’t feel suffocated by it. Unexpected guests are easy to accommodate at the table or around the fire pit (which has a surround perfectly suited to hold wine glasses). This is outdoor living at its best.

Is it time to re-think your patio?

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The Path Less Traveled

Sapphire Blue sea holly is a favorite for deer resistant, drought tolerant drama

Sapphire Blue sea holly is a favorite for deer resistant, drought tolerant drama

Have you been into your garden recently? Not to weed the borders or cut the grass – just to see what is happening? Set the alarm clock a little earlier tomorrow, grab your camera and go on a mini garden safari.

I must admit I wasn’t sure there was anything really worth photographing. I hadn’t even caught up with removing spent bulb foliage let alone trimming the grass edges, the peonies needed deadheading, the new borders weren’t grown in, I still had ‘holes’ to plug….. Sound familiar?  Yet I challenged myself to be an adventurer in my own garden, to be expectant, observant.

Hidden in plain view

Create a sense of mystery with a scrim of finely textured foliage or flowers

Create a sense of mystery with a scrim of finely textured foliage or flowers

I typically view this scene from a different perspective; from the left (indoors) the right (driving into the property) or three feet higher up – when I’m standing. Yet as I bent down to pull a weed (I couldn’t help myself) I happened to glance up and noticed what a delightful semi-transparent screen this stand of Sapphire Blue sea holly (Eryngium ‘Sapphire Blue’) made. Veiled glimpses of this intimate patio made it appear all the more enticing, tucked within a frame of foliage and flowers. The elliptical glass birdbath drew my eye back to the roses and Caradonna sage (Salvia nemorosa ‘Caradonna’) now in full bloom. I could ignore fallen petals and leaves and enjoy the romance of the setting.

You can create a similar effect using tall verbena (Verbena bonariensis) or grasses.

Take a different path

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From outside the border, the strolling path disappears visually, leaving uninterrupted layers of colorful trees, shrubs and perennials

Do you always walk around your garden in the same direction? The scene above is part of my large island border which has a strolling path running through the middle of it. I have trained myself to deliberately walk that path in each direction periodically to get a fresh perspective but I rarely walk around the outside of the border and peer in. Yet this richly hued  vignette could only be truly appreciated when I did just that. The red-tipped Shenandoah switch grass (Panicum virgatum ‘Shenandoah’) is still low enough for me to see over and provided a perfect visual carpet for the glowing Orange Rocket barberry, Skylands spruce and erupting Cleopatra foxtail lilies and orange oriental poppies . Layers of gold, orange and burgundy, set off by many shades of green – all revealed by taking a walk along the path less well traveled.

Learn to stand still

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No special detours taken for this shot – I just stood still and crouched down a little to look more closely at this lovely metal bird my son sent for my birthday. The early morning light cast a perfect shadow.

From my semi-crouched position I simply turned my head….

IMG_1128 Was this my garden? I usually walk this pathway quite quickly and as a result was missing this complex vignette with its luscious textural layers and color play. Yet look how the ice-blue corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) needles  complement  the rich plum leaves of my new Moonlight Magic crepe myrtle while offering a monochromatic medley with the Sapphire Blue sea holly and Blue Shag pine (Pinus strobus ‘ Blue Shag’). I had missed that moment when the rising sun kissed the tips of the Skylands spruce (Picea orientalis ‘Skylands’) and barberry branches (Rose Glow to the left and Orange Rocket to the right). A little bird helped me see all that.

Do you need a add a ‘garden moment’ alongside the path to re-focus your view?

Dare to dream

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I  want to wait until this newly planted area has grown in before I write a more extensive post discussing the design details of our new patio but I thought you might like to get a glimpse of my vision at this interim stage. This is the view from our kitchen looking out into the back garden. The main patio is several steps away from the house and we have added a large planter in the middle of a border between the two. The idea is to create layers of color and texture to frame the patio, attract hummingbirds and butterflies, establish a focal point and create a more intimate space within the acreage.

IMG_1076 Once outside you feel nestled within that space yet have open views all around. The plants have a lot of growing to do – but the dream is becoming a reality.

How is your garden growing?

 

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Taming the Front Garden

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The existing landscaping suggested a neglected home; a far cry from the truth!

Eek!

Where would you start? Pruning the overgrown rhododendrons and camellias? Removing towering, diseased conifers? Hauling away a pampas grass the size of a Volkswagen?

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Overgrown bushes and weeds did nothing to enhance curb appeal

Well maybe, but the biggest problem was actually the driveway, assuming you drove a vehicle larger than a Mini cooper.

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The edge of the driveway was crumbling

Besides some areas that were crumbling away, it was extremely difficult if not impossible to navigate the existing U-shaped driveway without at least a three point turn and reversing back out of the garage was equally challenging so that was actually where my design had to begin – with improved vehicular access and parking.

Good design has to go hand in hand with function so I always begin by assessing the inherent challenges and figuring out how to solve them, as much as I may already be dreaming about which trees to add!

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Ivy and cotoneaster ran rampant towards the street

The second problem was privacy. There needed to be a buffer from the street, a separation of private and public spaces within the property and some screening from neighbors without appearing to be un-neighborly! Fences would solve part of the problem but they needed to look fabulous and not turn this large front garden into a fortress.

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Three tall conifers were far too close to the driveway for safe driving.

Finally the overgrown landscape clearly needed to be addressed, saving what I could but not being afraid to remove several large conifers that were too close to the driveway, as well as the aforementioned unruly pampas grass and a thicket of ivy and cotoneaster.

The Design Criteria

I always work with the clients to determine their preferred design style, even while taking some cues from the contemporary architecture of this newly remodeled home. In this case I was asked to create a relatively ‘naturalistic’ planting style with a focus on foliage and texture over flowers (my sort of garden!) Note that naturalistic does not have to mean using only native plants. Rather the request here was to have something that had some Pacific Northwest flair with conifers, maples and boulders but to broaden the plant palette without it appearing overdone. Although one of the homeowners is a keen gardener it was important that this front garden was lower maintenance so that gardening time was primarily focused in the private rear garden areas (I’ll show you that before/after another time). It also needs to be drought tolerant although we have installed a drip irrigation system to help establish the new plantings for the first couple of years.

This garden won’t be used for entertainment or even as a casual seating area for the homeowners. It is simply the front entrance to the home, a foliage picture frame of sorts, so my aim was to have it tidy but also show an artistic flair (the interior of the home is beautiful and one of the homeowners is a fiber artist). It needed to say ‘Welcome’ and set the tone for what would be revealed. This wasn’t the place for a meandering  path through the beds or a semi-secluded bench for example.

The Plan – on Paper

front garden landscape re-design

The driveway was repaired and expanded by 10′ at the turnaround to allow better access and a dedicated parking area was established near the home’s entrance. You can see where the original brick and gravel driveway edge was on the plan. There is additional parking to the west of the home behind a new wide gate. However budget did not allow for a concrete pour so for now these additional areas are compacted gravel.

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We reclaimed about 10′ of driveway to improve access. Compacted gravel was a budget friendly solution for now. On the far side of the driveway layers of trees and shrubs will soon screen the neighbors

A low wall and contemporary styled fencing (the fence and gate were designed by the homeowners and their general contractor) addressed many of the privacy issues. Rather than create a barricade between this home and the neighbor, the fence transitioned to a deep border of layered evergreen and deciduous trees and shrubs that will quickly fill in.

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A custom fence and gate greatly enhanced the visual appeal while affording some privacy. This pullout provided parking for guests too.

Tall vertical grasses were added to create a buffer at the roadside; or at least they will be tall and vertical next year!

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With the house number now lit and a simple planting of grasses replacing the straggly shrubs, the entrance to the home looks much cleaner. These grasses will grow 5′ tall next year, yet retain a degree of transparency

These Karl Foerster feather reed grasses (Calamagrostis acutiflora ‘Karl Foerster) will grow to 5′ tall and over 2’ wide, their tan plumes lasting well into winter even if it snows. I had originally planned a double row but we reduced this to a single row as the homeowners were concerned about visibility when pulling out of their driveway. Good call!

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The bark of river birch peels away even at a young age to reveal shades of creamy tan and white

One of my favorite features is an allee of river birch (Betula nigra ‘Heritage’) that marks the main  entrance, the trees zigzagging down the driveway. With their attractive peeling bark and soft green leaves that turn to gold in fall these will be a year round highlight.

‘After’  – the Winter Version

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Looking from the pull-out parking area towards the street. Note the five river birch on alternating sides of the driveway. We’ll add a few more grasses in the foreground until the cedars grow in.

 

I always hesitate to show ‘after’ photos when the design has been installed in winter because it looks a mere shadow of what I know is to come. Yet this is the reality and probably something that is helpful for you to see. The plants are all well spaced to allow for growth although we will be adding a few more grasses as temporary fillers.

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With the driveway repaired and fresh landscaping this home now looks loved and lived in! Notice how the new fence and gate separates the private entrance to the home

I draw the design for suggested ten year growth so there will always be ‘gaps’. These can be filled with annuals or inexpensive perennials and grasses when homeowners want a fuller look straight away without compromising the overall design or heath of maturing trees and shrubs.

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This Niagara Falls pine will grow to become a key feature on this corner with the finely dissected burgundy foliage of a maple and bold QuickFire hydrangea in the background

Even in winter you can see there is a good framework of evergreen foliage with the existing Rhododendron and camellia, the new Niagara Falls pine (Pinus strobus ‘Niagara Falls’)and Excelsa cedars (Thuja plicata ‘Excelsa’) to the bold David viburnum (Viburnum davidii), variegated Lemon Beauty box honeysuckle (Lonicera nitida ‘Lemon Beauty’) and blue oat grasses (Helictotrichon sempervirens).

To help you visualize the garden as it will mature here are all the plants;

Shades of Green and Gold

green shades

Clockwise from top left; Golden Spirit smoke bush, Excelsa cedar, Lemon Beauty box honeysuckle, David viburnum, Double Play Gold spirea, Niagara Falls pine

Accents of Burgundy, Blue and Copper

accents

Clockwise from top left; spring foliage of Double Play Gold spirea, weeping Japanese maple (salvaged from existing landscape), blue oat grass, fall foliage of Snow Queen oak leaf hydrangea (latter photo credit; Monrovia)

Not shown is the Katsura Japanese maple which opens in ‘sunset’ shades before maturing to green and turning fiery orange and gold in fall.

Seasonal Flowers

flowers

Clockwise from top left; Snow Queen hydrangea (photo credit; Monrovia), Jelena witch hazel (photo credit; Le jardinet), QuickFire hydrangea (photo credit; Proven Winners), Summer Wine ninebark, substituted for Coppertina due to availability (photo credit: Monrovia).

Also offering blooms but not photographed is the David viburnum, existing rhododendron and existing camellia.

So within this naturalistic planting their is an underlying attention to the details of color and texture. No one plant screams “Look at ME!” yet there is a horticultural fugue being played as first one section of the plant palette is highlighted, the theme then being taken up by a second group and then a third.

Finishing Touches

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This corner serves as a run off for rainwater so the river rocks are part of that drainage system as well as tying in visually to the boulders

Acting as anchors throughout the borders are boulders of varying sizes. These help keep vehicles where they should be but also create planting pockets for specimens such as the weeping pine which will grow to around 6-8′ wide and drape gracefully over the stone.

Lighting has been added which I have yet to see but the home owners tell me looks stunning! The river birch are all lit as well as the house sign and a golden spirit smoke bush which will grow to become a glorious splash of sunshine against the darker evergreens at the head of the driveway.

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Winter containers by the gate that leads to the homes private entrance

A cluster of containers by the side entrance marks the transition and says ‘welcome’. These were planted last summer and will be refreshed and trimmed in spring but really help to bring the garden right up to the gate, connecting visitors with the garden.

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Summer planting

Final Words

What do the homeowners think?

“We are surprised and delighted with how our new landscape has improved the street appeal and  resolved the challenging tight turn around. So nice to get rid of the unkempt woodsy look…

This was the final piece to our major home remodel project; it finally feels complete!”

Installed by the talented crew at Berg’s Landscaping

Is it time to rethink your front garden?

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Reclaiming the Garden

When the best looking part of a garden is a dead tree root you know you have a challenge ahead!

When the best looking part of a garden is a dead tree root you know you have a challenge ahead!

I was recently invited to redesign a back garden in Kirkland, WA.

The neighbors mini-barn and home were the only 'view'

The neighbors mini-barn and home were the only ‘view’

 

To the homeowners the main priority was a need for privacy from neighboring homes yet to me the biggest challenge was function. How would this couple use their new space and how would they get into it?

Before – the challenges

 

Blinds were kept closed; what was there to look at anyway?

Blinds were kept closed; what was there to look at anyway?

A large lawn took up most of the area with a few struggling trees and shrubs around the perimeter. Far from being inviting it seemed lifeless – not a bird in sight. No birdsong or butterflies. It seemed sterile.

originally the only access into the garden was through this area

Originally the only access into the garden was through this side area

Access to this back garden was through a side kitchen door that took you across a  shaded deck that had seen better days and was clearly in need of replacing, but that whole area seemed more dark and foreboding than bright and inviting. Why venture outside?

The lawn sloped to the back fence - a challenge for the lawnmower but an invitation to me!

The lawn sloped to the back fence – a challenge for the lawnmower but an invitation to me!

There was also a significant slope to the garden which had to be addressed.

After – improved access

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New French doors, removal of an old raised deck and creative hardscaping – what a difference

 

It seemed obvious to me that replacing a large window in the dining room with French doors would greatly improve access into the new garden but also change the dynamic of the entire space – thankfully the homeowners agreed and that pivotal decision was key to transforming this bland area into a true extension of their already beautiful home.

A new circular patio transformed the side garden, especially after the original flagstone was cleaned and re-set

A new circular patio transformed the side garden, especially after the original flagstone was cleaned and re-set

The original approach from the street and kitchen led through a dark tunnel of overgrown trees across an awkward mix of flagstones and worn decking. We removed some trees and limbed up others then repeated the circular theme with a stone patio that connected comfortably to the back garden. With plenty of space for the BBQ and dining as well as colorful containers the entire atmosphere has changed.

Function

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The main patio leads off the new French doors. A gravel path leads to the lower fire pit

 

The lawn took up time, fertilizer, water and money – yet was never used. That has now been replaced with two linked patios surrounded by billowing borders, a privacy hedge and meandering paths.

The main patio is large enough for dining or lounging with friends. Originally planned with a pergola and custom retractable sun shade, this was revised to accommodate a 12′ umbrella that easily adjusts to suit.

Using the grade to create a sitting wall around the fire pit

Using the grade to create a sitting wall around the fire pit

A short curved path and a couple of easy steps takes you to a more intimate circular patio featuring a portable fire pit that doubles as a table for coffee or cocktails. To accommodate the grade, a curved sitting wall was constructed to provide additional seating.

Now you can stroll through the gardens

Now you can stroll through the gardens on gravel paths

Meandering through the garden, a simple gravel path connects these two areas and provides access to both side gardens. This leisurely stroll takes you past fragrant peonies, rustling grasses and colorful shrubs that will soon fill in.

The details

The patio has a border of contrasting cobbles reminiscent of a fine rug

The patio has a border of contrasting cobbles reminiscent of a fine rug

Continuity is important. The tumbled grey cobblestones used for the circular patios were also used as a border on the main patio and the color repeated in the low retaining walls and gravel blend.

Large boulders were added as accents in the borders, connecting the different areas visually and tying into the stonework elsewhere.

The color scheme was taken from the homes interior furnishings with rich reds, purple and gold dominating and with blue as an accent. Plants were selected for colorful foliage primarily but  also for easy care and four season interest.

Several special trees were selected as the homeowners like unique plants. Sculptural conifers and a contorted filbert are just two examples.

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Rather than a monoculture of 12′ tall arborvitae for privacy we integrated several standard laurels as well as layering in columnar  Armstrong maples that provided height but didn’t obstruct the paths. In front of these are Quickfire hydrangeas, smoke bushes and other shrubs for color and texture. Neighbors? What neighbors?

Let there be life!

A water feature adds sound and movement to the garden

A water feature adds sound and movement to the garden

We had barely set the first tree in place when a bird flew in and started to sing – a sure measure of success! Adding a bubbling fountain, custom designed by AW Pottery keeps them – and the homeowners entranced.

The results

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I’ll let the homeowners have the last word; 

We are amazed at what you designed for our garden and patio. You are truly an artist and gardens are your canvas. How you envisioned our yard to be something that we could have never imagined is truly remarkable. The versatility of how you utilized the overall space and the interesting mixture of colors and textures of varying types of plants, as well as pavers, is beyond anything that we could have dreamt up. You have truly changed our lives.

We appreciate your guidance and patience with us as we worked through decisions that you already knew the best answers to, but you gave us the time and space to catch up after planting little seeds in our heads to ponder. Meeting and working with you has truly enriched our lives and we will be forever grateful.

 

Is it time to re-think your lawn?

 

Construction and installation by Berg’s Landscaping, an exceptional team of dedicated professionals whom I am proud to call friends and colleagues.

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Scratch and Sniff

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Pallida has an open shape with a rounded crown – shown here underplanted with hellebores

 

Seattle is having an unprecedented mild spell which tempted me out  to visit the winter garden at the University of Washington arboretum this weekend. The birds were singing, the frogs were….doing what frogs do, the hummingbirds were dipping and diving and people were swooning. Really? Yes really. Pure olfactory overload – the witch hazels are in full bloom, the sweetbox is flowering, some of the Oregon grapes still have fragrant blooms and the daphne are just getting started. So for those of you buried under snow or battling icy winds, here is a little witch hazel Scratch and Sniff from Seattle to cheer you up.

Witch hazel (Hamamelis species)

 

Winter Beauty blooms prolifically in full sun

Winter Beauty blooms prolifically in full sun

Witch hazels (Hamamelis sp.) are small trees or large deciduous shrubs originating from North America (H. ovalis, H. virginialis, H. vernalis), Japan (H. japonica) and China (H. mollis). Many of today’s favorites are a hybrid between H. japonica and H. mollis known as Hamamelis x intermedia from which cultivars such as Jelena (coppery orange) and Diane (red) have been propagated.

Gives these beauties room to spread – some can reach 15′ tall and wide! I too am guilty of ‘tucking’ them into a corner….

Pruning can be tricky and I don’t recommend it except to remove suckers. Those are the branches which stick straight up (the natural habit is of sideways or fan shaped growth). You may also see suckers from the base of the main trunk which again grow straight up. The general consensus is to remove these when the shrub is completely dormant (in winter) to reduce the possibility of stimulating new growth at that point. If you must prune for size then do so after flowering but before summer so that new buds have a chance to set for the following year.

Selecting for fragrance

Gold Crest is worth seeking out for its intense spicy fragrance

Gold Crest is worth seeking out for its intense spicy fragrance

While all witch hazels are fragrant some are more so than others. These are noted for their exceptional scent;

Gold Crest, Arnold Promise, Boskoop

Selecting for flower color

Ruby Glow is an unusual shade of brick red

Ruby Glow is an unusual shade of brick red

Yellow;  Gold Crest, Arnold Promise, Sandra, Sweet Sunshine, Pallida

Red; Diane, Agnes, Birgit, Foxy Lady

Orange; Jelena, Aphrodite, Gingerbread

Selecting for bloom time

This winter vignette captures two witch hazels and hellebore all in bloom together

This winter vignette captures two witch hazels and hellebore all in bloom together

The bloom time may vary from year to year, from one area to another and is weather dependent but this general guide will help you select a couple of cultivars that will provide you with an extended dose of swoon-worthy fragrance!

January-March; Chinese witch hazel (H. mollis)

February-March; Japanese witch hazel (H. japonica)

Fall; H. virginiana This native species is hardy in USDA Zones 3-8, spectacular in autumn as flowers at the same time as its leaves turn golden yellow

Late winter/early spring ; H. vernalis

Late spring – April; Orange Encore ( H x intermedia ‘Orange Encore’)

Selecting for fall color

Diane has a wide range of colors in fall

Diane has a wide range of colors in fall

Arnold Promise  – yellow

Diane – orange, gold and purple!

Jelena – orange and red

H. virginiana – yellow

Selecting for size/shape

Winter Beauty has a broad, spreading shape

Winter Beauty has a broad, spreading shape

Most witch hazels are typically as tall as they are wide, ranging from 10-15′ but these are notable exceptions

Narrower profile – Arnold Promise, Sweet Sunshine

Arnold Promise is narrower than many

Arnold Promise is narrower than many

Weeping – Lombart’s weeping witch hazel (Hamamelis vernalis ‘Lombart’s Weeping’).

Basic cultural requirements

Full sun or partial shade but flowering is best in full sun

Average, moisture retentive, acidic soil

Typically hardy in zones 5-8

Want to know more?

Great reading!

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